For industries to reach climate neutrality, TRANSFORMER regions need to take a cross-sectoral approach and couple their transition with the one for the energy sector. Particular challenges arise for energy-intensive industries, e.g. the use of green hydrogen in steelmaking. 

Additional challenges associated with industry decarbonisation may appear when companies operate in an environment that is characterised by disruptions and pervasive uncertainty, as well as by the need to enhance European competitiveness, employment and economic growth. 

Process-based industries face particularly hard challenges regarding their decarbonisation and require breakthrough technologies in processes to reach zero-carbon production. The decarbonisation of the industry sector also provides an opportunity for the model regions to invest in eco-industries that have seen an increase in employment of 20% in Europe since 2012. 

TRANSFORMER regions taking a cross-sectoral approach to decarbonisation will eventually face challenges regarding their regions’ cultural identity, as they are often historically attached to their industry. In some regions, their industries’ decarbonisation may create a shift in their cultural identity.