This sector creates multiple challenges in the TRANSFORMER regions when transitioning to climate neutrality, from having to cope with rapidly growing food demand to being a sector producing a large share of non-CO2 emissions (e.g. methane) due to the large share of animal-based protein production. 

Changes across sectors can also be linked to changes in social behaviours and cultural identities, e.g. changes in diets or a reduction in food loss and waste can contribute to decarbonising the agricultural and food production sector. 

The decarbonisation of energy and transport may impact agriculture and food production, with the growing need for bio-energy production and affecting biodiversity, food security, etc. Thus, the decarbonisation of energy, transport and agriculture and food production have to be integrated to streamline decarbonisation strategies.